Below is a listing of economic studies that have analyzed universal, public healthcare proposals at the national and state levels. The academic quality of the studies varies significantly. Additionally, some of the studies analyze specific pieces of legislation, while others rely on the authors' assumptions about how a single-payer healthcare plan would be implemented. Click on the title of any study to learn more about its authors, who funded the analysis, a summary of the study's findings, or download the full text of the study.

If you're aware of a single-payer study we haven't included below, please email us with details at info [at], and we will update our listing!

National Single Payer Studies

2022Christopher Cai, et al. Projected costs of single-payer healthcare financing in the United States: A systematic review of economic analyses
2022Alison P. Galvani, et al. Universal healthcare as pandemic preparedness: The lives and costs that could have been saved during the COVID-19 pandemic
2022Congressional Budget OfficeEconomic Effects of Five Illustrative Single-Payer Health Care Systems
2020Congressional Budget OfficeHow CBO Analyzes the Costs of Proposals for Single-Payer Health Care Systems That Are Based on Medicare’s Fee-for-Service Program
2020Alison Galvani et alImproving the prognosis of health care in the USA
2019Urban InstituteFrom Incremental to Comprehensive: How Various Reform Options Compare on Coverage and Costs
2019Congressional Budget OfficeKey Design Components and Considerations for Establishing a Single-Payer Health Care System
2018Political Economy Research InstituteEconomic Analysis of Medicare for All
2018Mercatus CenterThe Costs of a National Single-Payer Healthcare System
2016Jodi LiuExploring Single-Payer Alternatives for Health Care Reform
2016Urban InstituteThe Sanders Single-Payer Health Care Plan: The Effect on National Health Expenditures and Federal and Private Spending
2016Kenneth ThorpeAn Analysis of Senator Sanders Single Payer Plan
2013Gerald FriedmanFunding HR 676: The Expanded and Improved Medicare for All Act
2005Kenneth ThorpeImpacts of Health Care Reform: Projections of Costs and Savings
1998Economic Policy InstituteUniversal Coverage: How Do We Pay For It?
1993Congressional Budget OfficeEstimates of Health Care Proposals from the 102nd Congress
1993Congressional Budget OfficePreliminary Estimate of the Effects of S. 491, American Health Security Act of 1993
1993Congressional Budget OfficeSingle-Payer and All-Payer Health Insurance Systems Using Medicare's Payment Rates
1992Government Accounting OfficeCanadian Health Insurance: Estimating Costs and Savings for the United States
1991Physicians for a National Health ProgramLiberal Benefits, Conservative Spending: The Physicians for a National Health Program Proposal
1991Congressional Budget OfficeUniversal Health Insurance Coverage Using Medicare's Payment Rates
1991Government Accounting OfficeCanadian Health Insurance: Lessons for the United States
1971U.S. Department of Health, Education, and WelfareAnalysis of Health Insurance Proposals Introduced in the 92d Congress

State Single Payer Studies

California2017Political Economy Research InstituteEconomic Analysis of the Healthy California Single-Payer Health Care Proposal (SB-562)
California2017California Senate Committee on AppropriationsFiscal estimates of SB 562 The Healthy California Act
California2008California Legislative Analyst's OfficeFiscal analysis of SB 840
California2005Lewin GroupThe Health Care For All Californians Act: Cost and Economic Impacts Analysis
California2002Lewin GroupCost and Coverage Analysis of Nine Proposals to expand Health Insurance Coverage in California
Colorado2022Colorado School of Public HealthHealth Care Cost Analysis Task Force: 1176 The Health Care Cost Analysis Task Force
Colorado2016Colorado Health InstituteColoradoCare: An Independent Analysis
Colorado2015Colorado Foundation for Universal Health CareEconomic Analysis of the ColoradoCare Proposal
Colorado2013Gerald FriedmanThree Possibilities for Colorado’s Future Health Care Financing and Delivery
Colorado2007Lewin GroupCost and Coverage Impacts of Five Proposals to Reform the Colorado Health Care System
Georgia2003Lewin GroupThe Georgia SecureCare Program: Estimated Cost and Coverage Impacts
Kansas2007Schramm Raleigh Health StrategyKansas – Pricing the Roadmap To Health Insurance Reform Options
Maine2019Maine Center for Economic PolicyAssessing the Costs and Impacts of a StateLevel Universal Health Care System in Maine
Maine2002MathematicaFeasibility of a Single-Payer Health Care Model for the State of Maine
Maryland2013Gerald FriedmanFinancing the Maryland Health Security Act
Maryland2000Lewin GroupAnalysis of the Costs and Impact of Universal Health Care Models for the State of Maryland: The Single-Payer and Multi-Payer Models
Massachusetts2023Gerald FriedmanFunding universal health care in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts
Massachusetts2010Gerald FriedmanCost and funding of proposed Medicare for All in Massachusetts bill
Massachusetts2005Kenneth ThorpeAction Costs Less: The Health Care Amendment Standards and Options for Reform
Massachusetts2002LECGThe Feasibility of Consolidated Health Care Financing and Streamlined Health Care Delivery in Massachusetts
Massachusetts2000Solutions for ProgressMassachusetts Can Afford Health Care for All: Covering Everyone Comprehensively Without Spending More
Massachusetts1998Lewin GroupMassachusetts Comparative Projected Health Expenditure Model
Minnesota2012Lewin GroupCost and Economic Impact Analysis of a Single-Payer Plan in Minnesota
Missouri2003Kenneth ThorpeA Universal Health Care Plan for Missouri
New Mexico2007MathematicaQuantitative and Comparative Analysis of Reform Options for Extending Health Care Coverage in New Mexico
New Mexico1994Lewin GroupThe Financial Impact of Alternative Health Reform Plans in New Mexico
New York2018RANDAn Assessment of the New York Health Act: A Single-Payer Option for New York State
New York2015Gerald FriedmanEconomic Analysis of the New York Health Act
New York2009Urban InstituteAchieving Quality, Affordable Health Insurance for All New Yorkers: An Analysis of Reform Options
Ohio2018Gerald FriedmanEconomic Analysis of Single Payer Health Care in Ohio: Context, Savings, Costs, Financing
Oregon2017RANDA Comprehensive Assessment of Four Options for Financing Health Care Delivery in Oregon
Pennsylvania2013Gerald FriedmanThe Pennsylvania Health Care Plan: Impact and Implementation
Rhode Island2002Solutions for ProgressRhode Island Can Afford Health Care for All
Vermont2014Vermont Agency of AdministrationGreen Mountain Care: A Comprehensive Model for Building Vermont’s Universal Health Care System
Vermont2013UMass and Wakely ConsultingState of Vermont Health Care Financing Plan Beginning Calendar Year 2017 Analysis
Vermont2011William Hsiao et alAct 128 Health System Reform Design: Achieving Affordable Universal Health Care in Vermont
Vermont2001Lewin GroupAnalysis of the Costs and Impact of Universal Health Care Coverage Under a Single Payer Model for the State of Vermont

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